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State Administration

The Republic of Belarus is a unitary democratic social state based on the rule of law (Article 1 of the Constitution of the Republic of Belarus). Under Article 8 of the Constitution, the Republic of Belarus recognizes the supremacy of the universally acknowledged principles of international law and ensures that its laws comply with such principles.

Foreign nationals and stateless persons on the territory of Belarus shall enjoy rights and liberties and execute duties on equal terms with the citizens of the Republic of Belarus, unless otherwise specified in the Constitution, the laws and international treaties (Article 11 of the Constitution of the Republic of Belarus).

The state power in Belarus rests in three branches of government: the legislative, executive and judicial. Belarus is a presidential republic. The President of the Republic of Belarus is the Head of State, the guarantor of the Constitution of the Republic of Belarus, the rights and liberties of man and citizen. Under the Constitution, the Parliament is the legislative body of the Republic of Belarus. The Parliament consists of two chambers: the Chamber of Representatives and the Council of the Republic. Executive power in the Republic of Belarus is exercised by the Government - the Council of Ministers of the Republic of Belarus - the central body of state administration. Local government and self-government is exercised through local executive and administrative bodies, bodies of self-government, referenda, etc.

Courts of law exercise judicial power in the Republic of Belarus. The Constitutional Court of the Republic of Belarus supervises the constitutionality of enforceable enactments of the state.

 

State Symbols

The National Flag of the Republic of Belarus

The National Flag of the Republic of Belarus, which is a symbol of state sovereignty of the Republic of Belarus, is a rectangular cloth consisting of two longitudinal stripes: red upper stripe and green lower stripe that are two-thirds and one-third of the flag width respectively. A vertical red-on-white Belarusian decorative pattern, which occupies one-ninth of the flag's length, is placed against the flagstaff. The flags ratio of width to length is 1:2. The flag is fixed on a flagstaff painted golden (ochre).
During ceremonies and other solemn events, the National Flag of the Republic of Belarus is used with a diamond-shaped top edge containing a five-point star. The star is analogous to the one depicted on the national Emblem of the Republic of Belarus. The top edges are made of yellow metal.

The National Coat of Arms of the Republic of Belarus

The National Emblem of the Republic of Belarus, which is a symbol of state sovereignty of the Republic of Belarus, represents a green-coloured contour of the Republic of Belarus in golden rays radiated by the sun over the globe. On top of the contour is a five-pointed red star. The emblem is set in a frame of wreath of golden wheat-ears interlaced with clover flowers on the right and flax flowers on the left. Wheat-ears are interlaced with a red-green ribbon carrying a golden inscription "The Republic of Belarus" at the bottom.

The National Anthem of the Republic of Belarus

Lyrics by M.Klimkovich and V. Karizna
Music by N.Sokolovsky

State Holidays

March 15 the Constitution Day of the Republic of Belarus;
April 2 the Belarusian-Russian Peoples Unity Day;
May 9 the Victory Day;
Second Sunday in May the Day of the National Coat of Arms and National Flag of the Republic of Belarus;
July 3 the Independence Day of the Republic of Belarus.

Electoral System

The elections of deputies and other persons elected to state office by the people shall be universal: citizens of the Republic of Belarus who have reached the age of 18 are eligible to vote (Article 64 of the Constitution of the Republic of Belarus). Elections shall be free. A voter shall decide personally whether to take part in elections and for whom to vote (Article 65 of the Constitution of the Republic of Belarus). Elections shall be held according to the principle of equal suffrage. Voters shall have equal number of votes. Candidates standing for public office shall take part in elections on an equal basis (Article 66 of the Constitution of the Republic of Belarus). Elections of deputies shall be direct. Deputies shall be elected by citizens directly (Article 67 of the Constitution of the Republic of Belarus). Voting at elections shall be secret. The monitoring of voters' preferences while voting is in progress shall be prohibited (Article 68 of the Constitution of the Republic of Belarus).

President of the Republic of Belarus

The President of the Republic of Belarus is the Head of State, the guarantor of the Constitution of the Republic of Belarus, the rights and liberties of man and citizen.

The President personifies the unity of the nation, the implementation of the main guidelines of the domestic and foreign policy, represents the State in the relations with other states and international organizations. The President provides the protection of the sovereignty of the Republic of Belarus, its national security and territorial integrity, ensures its political and economic stability, continuity and interaction of bodies of state power, maintains the intermediation among the bodies of state power.
The President enjoys immunity, and his honour and dignity are protected by the law.

Any citizen of the Republic of Belarus by birth at least 35 years of age who is eligible to vote and has been resident in the Republic of Belarus for at least ten years to the elections may be elected President. The President is elected directly by the people of the Republic of Belarus for a term of office of five years by universal, free, equal, direct and secret ballot.
The President assumes office after taking the following Oath.

Whether the office of President falls vacant or the President is unable to discharge his duties to the order as determined by the Constitution, his power is transferred to the Prime Minister until the President-elect is sworn in.

Legislative Branch

The Parliament the National Assembly is a representative and legislative body of the Republic of Belarus.
The Parliament consists of two chambers - the Chamber of Representatives and the Council of the Republic. The House of Representatives consists of 110 deputies. The election of deputies to the House of Representatives are carried out in accordance with the law on the basis of universal, equal, free, direct electoral suffrage and by secret ballot.

The Chamber of Representatives
Any citizen of the Republic of Belarus who has reached the age of 21 may become a deputy of the Chamber of Representatives. Deputies of the House of Representatives exercise their powers in the Parliament on a professional basis unless otherwise is determined by the Constitution. A deputy of the House of Representatives may simultaneously be member of the Government.
The Chamber of Representatives considers draft laws, including those concerning the guidelines of the domestic and foreign policy of the Republic of Belarus; the military doctrine; ratification and denunciation of international treaties; the fundamental concept and principles of execution of rights, liberties and duties of its citizens; citizenship issues, the status of foreigners and stateless persons; the rights of ethnic minorities; the approval of the budget of the country and the account on its implementation; determination of the procedure for resolving issues relating to the administrative-territorial structure of the State; local self-government; declaration of war and conclusion of peace; martial law and a state of emergency; institution of state awards; interpretation of laws; calls elections for the Presidency; grants consent to the President concerning the appointment of the Prime Minister.

The Council of the Republic is a chamber of territorial representation. The Council of the Republic consists of eight deputies from every region (oblast) and the city of Minsk, elected at the meetings of deputies of local Councils of deputies of base level of every region (oblast) and the city of Minsk from their ranks. Eight members of the Council of the Republic are appointed by the President of the Republic of Belarus.

Any citizen of the Republic of Belarus who has reached the age of 30, and who has been resident on the territory of a corresponding region (oblast), or the city of Minsk no less than five years may become a member of the Council of the Republic.
The term of the Parliament is four years.

The Council of the Republic approves or rejects draft laws adopted by the Chamber of Representatives; gives its consent for the appointment by the President of the Chairperson of the Constitutional Court, Chairperson and judges of the Supreme Court, the Chairperson and judges of the Supreme Economic Court, the Chairperson of the Central Commission on Elections and National Referenda, the Procurator-General, the Chairperson and members of the National Bank. The Council of the Republic adopts resolution on the dissolution of local Council of deputies where it systematically and flagrantly violates the requirements of the law and other instances determined by the law.

Government

The Council of Ministers of the Republic of Belarus the central body of state administration in its activity is accountable to the President of the Republic of Belarus and responsible to the Parliament of the Republic of Belarus. The Government of the Republic of Belarus consists of the Prime Minister, his deputies and ministers. The heads of other central bodies of state administration may be members of the Government.

The Prime Minister is appointed by the President of the Republic of Belarus with the consent of the Chamber of Representatives.

The Government of the Republic of Belarus administers the system of subordinate bodies of state administration and other executive organs; elaborates the basic guidelines of the domestic and foreign policy, and takes measures to implement those; elaborates and submits to the President for further parliamentary consideration the draft national budget and an account of its implementation. The Government also ensures the execution of a uniform economic, financial, credit and monetary policy, and state policy in the field of science, culture, education, health care, ecology, social security and remuneration for labour. Besides, the Government exercises other powers entrusted to it by the Constitution, laws and acts of the President.

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